Is research on forced labour at an ‘early stage’? Introduction to the Special Issue

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Słowa kluczowe

forced labour
number of victims
exploitation
public awareness
innovative ideas
praca przymusowa
liczba ofiar
eksploatacja
świadomość społeczna
innowacyjne pomysły

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Lasocik, Z. (2021). Is research on forced labour at an ‘early stage’? Introduction to the Special Issue: Czy badania nad pracą przymusową są rzeczywiście na „wczesnym etapie”? Wprowadzenie do Numeru tematycznego. Archiwum Kryminologii, (XLIII/1), 7–18. https://doi.org/10.7420/AK2021.10

Abstrakt

Writing about the progress in the fight against forced labor, the UN Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings Maria Grazia Giammarinaro in 2020 said that were still at an “early stage”. It may be surprising if we take into account that International Convention on this issue was adopted over 80 years ago. Forced labor has two basic components: the labor exploitation and migration – both of them socially distressing. But from the point of view of the public life, the most painful is the juxtaposition of two figures: 40,000,000, i.e. estimation of the global number of victims of various forms of enslavement, and 100,000 – this is more or less the number of victims identified yearly by law enforcement agencies around the world. Even so, many countries still do not have any policies to combat forced labor but the interest of politicians is weakened by the needs of economic development. Finally, this non optimistic picture is combined with relatively low level of awareness of many social groups and the prevailing false belief that the real problem is the sexual exploitation of women and children. These were the reasons why we considered the publication of a Special Issue of the Archives of Criminology as necessary. The articles in this volume offer a number of interesting reflections and bring many innovative ideas.

 

Pisząc o postępach w walce z pracą przymusową Specjalny Sprawozdawca ONZ ds. handlu ludźmi Maria Grazia Giammarinaro w roku 2020 użyła określenia, że ciągle jeszcze jesteśmy na wczesnym etapie. To może dziwić, skoro konwencja dotycząca tej kwestii liczy sobie ponad 80 lat. Praca przymusowa to w istocie dwa zjawiska: eksploatacja cudzego trudu i migracja – obydwa społecznie dolegliwe. Ale z punktu widzenie praktyki życia publicznego najbardziej frustrujące jest jednak zestawienie dwóch liczb: 40.000.000, czyli globalna liczba ofiar różnych form zniewolenia i 100.000, mniej więcej tyle ofiar identyfikują rocznie organy ścigania na całym świecie. Mimo to, wiele krajów nadal nie ma żadnej polityki zwalczania pracy przymusowej, a zainteresowanie polityków jest osłabiane potrzebami rozwoju lokalnej gospodarki. Na ten mało optymistyczny obraz nakłada się relatywnie niski poziom świadomości wielu grup społecznych i dominujące przekonanie, że prawdziwym problemem jest eksploatacja seksualna kobiet i dzieci. Oto powody dla, których wydanie specjalnego tomu Archiwum Kryminologii uznaliśmy za zadanie aktualne i potrzebne. Zamieszczone tu artykuły zawierają szereg interesujących refleksji i przynoszą wiele nowatorskich pomysłów.

https://doi.org/10.7420/AK2021.10
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