What is labour exploitation? The Belgian and British experience

Zgłoś artykuł

PDF (English)

Słowa kluczowe

human trafficking
labour exploitation
forced labour
exploitation
definitions
handel ludźmi
wykorzystanie do pracy
praca przymusowa
wykorzystanie
definicje

Jak cytować

Weatherburn, A. (2021). What is labour exploitation? The Belgian and British experience: Co to jest praca przymusowa? Doświadczenia belgijskie i brytyjskie. Archiwum Kryminologii, (XLIII/1), 47–73. https://doi.org/10.7420/AK2021.09

Abstrakt

The legal understanding of labour exploitation is a grey area. This paper will first outline some of the obstacles in international and regional law and jurisprudence, as to the understanding of exploitation in the context of human trafficking, slavery, servitude and forced labour. Secondly, taking into account recent law reforms in both Belgium and England & Wales, this paper will outline some of the key features that have emerged from the judicial handling of labour exploitation in criminal cases. Drawing on the findings from empirical analysis of criminal cases between 2010-2017 as part of doctoral research, this paper will first of all outline similarities, differences and challenges to ensuring a clear understanding of the meaning of labour exploitation in the context of human trafficking. The findings will provide insight into how to strengthen a harmonised and robust response to human trafficking.

 

Prawne rozumienie pojęcia wykorzystania do pracy nie jest do końca jasne. W niniejszym artykule po pierwsze zostały przedstawione niektóre przeszkody, wynikające z prawa czy orzecznictwa na poziomie międzynarodowym oraz regionalnym, które utrudniają zrozumienie takich zagadnień jak wykorzystanie w kontekście handlu ludźmi, niewolnictwa, poddaństwa czy pracy przymusowej. Po drugie zaś, zostały omówione kluczowe wnioski, jakie wynikają z badania akt spraw karnych dotyczących wykorzystania pracowników do pracy, które przedstawiono przy uwzględnieniu ostatnich reform prawa mających miejsce w Belgii oraz Anglii i Walii. Badania empiryczne objęły lata 2010-2017 i zostały przeprowadzone w ramach badań doktorskich. W artykule pokazano przede wszystkim podobieństwa, różnice i wyzwania odnośnie do opracowania jasnej i zrozumiałej definicji pojęcia wykorzystania do pracy w kontekście handlu ludźmi. Wyniki tych analiz pozwolą zrozumieć, w jaki sposób należy wzmocnić zharmonizowaną i zdecydowaną reakcję na zjawisko handlu ludźmi.
https://doi.org/10.7420/AK2021.09
PDF (English)

Bibliografia

Allain J. (2009). ‘On the curious disappearance of human servitude from general international law’. Journal of the History of International Law 11, pp. 303–332.

Allain J. (2013). Slavery in international law of human exploitation and trafficking. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff.

Allain J. (2014). ‘No effective trafficking definition exists: Domestic implementation of the Palermo Protocol’. Albany Government Law Review 14, pp. 1–22.

Anderson B. and O’Connell Davidson J.(2003). Is trafficking in human beings demand driven? A multi-country pilot study. Geneva: International Organisation for Migration.

Australian High Court, 28.08.2008. Case of the Queen v. Tang [2008] HCA 39, M5/2008.

Balch A. (2012). Regulation and enforcement to tackle forced labour in the UK: A systematic response?. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Available online: https://www.jrf.org.uk/report/regulation-and-enforcement-tackle-forced-labour-uk-systematic-response [4.02.2021].

Beernaert M.-A. and Le Coq P. (2006). ‘La loi du 10 août 2005 modifiant diverses dispositions en vue de renforcer la lutte contre la traite et le trafic des êtres humains et contre les pratiques des marchands de sommeil’ [The law of 10 August 2005 modifying various provisions in order to reinforce the fight against trafficking and smuggling of human beings and against the practices of slum landlords]. Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie 86(4), pp. 335–406.

Bellagio – Harvard Guidelines on the Legal Parameters of Slavery (2012). Available online: https://www.monash.edu/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/2263693/Bellagio-Harvard-Guidelines-English.pdf [5.02.2021].

Chambre des Représentants de Belgique (Belgian House of Representatives) [CRB] (2005). Projet de loi modifiant diverses dispositions en vue de renforcer la lutte contre la traiteet le trafic des êtres humains. DOC 51 1560/001 [Bill amending various provisions with a view to strengthening the fight against trafficking and smuggling of human beings]. Available online: https://www.dekamer.be/FLWB/pdf/51/1560/51K1560001.pdf [5.02.2021].

Chuang J. (2014). ‘Exploitation creep and the unmaking of human trafficking law’. American Journal of International Law 108(4), pp. 609–649.

Chuang J. (2015). ‘The challenges and perils of reframing trafficking as ʻmodern-day slaveryʼ’. Anti-Trafficking Review 5, pp. 146–149.

Clesse C.-E. (2013). ‘La notion de dignité Humaine et son application pratique en matière de traite économique des êtres humains’ [The Concept of Human Dignity and its Practical Application to Economic Trafficking in Human Beings]. Revue de Droit Pénal de de Criminologie 12, pp. 854–877.

Coghlan D. and Wylie G. (2011). ‘Defining trafficking/denying justice? Forced labour in Ireland and the consequences of trafficking discourse’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 37(9), pp. 1513–1526.

Collège des Procureurs Généraux (College of Public Prosecutors) [CPP] (2004). ʻAnnexe 1. Indicateurs qui permettent de supposer des faits de TEHʼ [Annexe 1. Indicators that allow us to assume facts from THB]. In Circulaire n° COL 10/2004 du Collège des Procureurs généraux près les Cours d’appel (COL 12/99) [Circular n° COL 10/2004 of the Council of Public Prosecutors to the Courts of Appeal]. Available online: https://www.om-mp.be/sites/default/files/u1/col_10-2004_consolid.pdf, pp. 35-38.

Collège des Procureurs Généraux (College of Public Prosecutors) [CPP] (2007). Annexe 2 Circulaire n° COL 1/2007 du Collège des Procureurs généraux près les Cours d’appel, Traite des êtres humains - Directive ministérielle relative à la politique de recherches et poursuites en matière de traite des êtres humains [Annex 2 Circular No COL 1/2007 of the Board of Public Prosecutors at the Courts of Appeal, Trafficking in Human Beings - Ministerial Guideline on the Policy of Investigation and Prosecution of Trafficking in Human Beings].

Council of Europe [COE] (2018). 7th General Report on GRETA’S Activities. Available online: https://rm.coe.int/greta-2018-1-7gr-en/16807af20e [5.02.2021].

Council of Europe [COE] (2019). Ready for future challenges - Reinforcing the Council of Europe. Report by the Secretary General for the Ministerial Session in Helsinki, 16-17 May 2019. Available online: https://rm.coe.int/168093af03 [5.02.2021].

David F. (2015). ‘When it comes to modern slavery, do definitions matter?’. Anti-Trafficking Review 5, pp. 150–152.

Economic Community of West African States Community Court of Justice [ECOWAS CCJ], 27.10.2008. Case of Hadijatou Mani v. Republic of Niger (2008), ECW/CCJ/JUD/06/08, (27 October 2008). Available online: https://www.refworld.org/cases,ECOWAS_CCJ,496b41fa2.html [11.02.2021].

England and Wales Court of Appeal (Criminal Division) Decisions [EWCA], 7.07.2011. Case of Regina v S.K, application no. 201102228 C2, [2011] EWCA Crim 1691. Available online: http://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWCA/Crim/2011/1691.html [5.02.2021].

England and Wales Court of Appeal (Criminal Division) Decisions [EWCA], 26.03.2013. Case of Regina v. Connors, application no. (1) 2013/00300, (2)2013/3300301, (3)2013/00298, (4)2013/00297, [2013] EWCA Crim 324. Available online: https://sherloc.unodc.org/cld/uploads/res/case-law-doc/traffickingpersonscrimetype/gbr/r_v__connors_html/R._v._Connors_2013_EWCA_Crim_324.pdf [5.02.2021].

England and Wales Crown Court, 12.07.2012. Case of R v. WC, JJC, JC, MC, JC. Luton Crown Court.

England and Wales Crown Court, 16.03.2011. Case of R v. SK. Southwark Crown Court.

England and Wales Crown Court, 19.12.2012. Case of R v. JC, JC, MC, WC, BC. Bristol Crown Court.

England and Wales Crown Court, 24.05.2016. Case of R v. WC, PC, PJC, LC. Cardiff Crown Court.

England and Wales Crown Court, 24.10.2014. Case of R v. DD, TD, DD. Cardiff Crown Court.

England and Wales Crown Court, 31.08.2016. Case of R v. HC, MJ, CJ. Oxford Crown Court.

Eriksson M. (2013). ‘The prevention of human trafficking – regulating domestic criminal legislation through the European Convention on Human Rights’. Nordic Journal of International Law 82, pp. 339–368.

Esser L.B. and Dettmeijer-Vermeulen C.E. (2016). ‘The prominent role of national judges in interpreting the international definition of human trafficking’. Anti-trafficking Review 6, pp. 91–105.

European Commission [EC] (2016). Report on the Progress Made in the Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings as required under Article 20 of Directive 2011/36/EU on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting its Victims. Brussels, 19.6.2016 COM(2016) 267 final.

European Commission [EC] (2018). Second report on the progress made in the fight against trafficking in human beings as required under Article 20 of Directive 2011/36/EU on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims. Brussels, 3.12.2018 COM(2018) 777 final. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/what-we-do/policies/european-agenda-security/20181204_com-2018-777-report_en.pdf [5.02.2021].

European Commission of Human Rights, 9.07.1980. Case of Van Droogenbroeck v. Belgium, Report of the Commission 9 July 1980, application no. 7906/77. Available online: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/app/conversion/pdf?library=ECHR&id=001-73697&filename=CEDH.pdf [11.02.2021].

European Court of Human Rights [ECHR], 11.10.2012. Case of C.N. and V. v. France, 11 October 2012, application no. 67724/09. Available online: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/fre?i=001-114032 [11.02.2021].

European Court of Human Rights [ECHR], 17.01.2017. Case of J & Others v. Austria, 17 January 2017, application no. 58216/12. Available online: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-170388 [11.02.2021].

European Court of Human Rights [ECHR], 19.07.2018. Case of S.M. v. Croatia 19 July 2018, application no. 60561/14. Available online: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-203503 [11.02.2021].

European Court of Human Rights [ECHR], 21.01.2016. Case of L.E. v. Greece, 21 January 2016, application no. 71545/12. Available online: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-160218 [11.02.2021].

European Court of Human Rights [ECHR], 23.11.1983. Case of Van Der Mussele v. Belgium, 23 November 1983, application no. 8919/80. Available online: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-57591 [11.02.2021].

European Court of Human Rights [ECHR], 25.06.2020. Case of S.M. v. Croatia, Grand Chamber, application no. 60561/14. Available online: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-203503 [11.02.2021].

European Court of Human Rights [ECHR], 26.07.2005. Case of Siliadin v. France, 26 July 2005, application no. 73316/01. Available online: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-69891 [11.02.2021].

European Court of Human Rights [ECHR], 30.03.2017. Case of Chowdury and others v. Greece, 30 March 2017, application no. 21884/15. Available online: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-172701 [11.02.2021].

European Court of Human Rights [ECHR], 31.07.2012. Case of M & Others v. Italy & Bulgaria, 31 July 2012, application no. 40020/03. Available online: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/fre?i=001-112576 [11.02.2021].

European Court of Human Rights [ECHR], 7.01.2010. Case of Rantsev v. Cyprus and Russia, 7 January 2010, application no. 25965/04. Available online: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-96549 [11.02.2021].

European Parliament (2018). Contemporary forms of slavery. Available online: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2018/603470/EXPO_STU(2018)603470_EN.pdf.

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights [FRA] (2015). Severe labour exploitation: Workers moving within or into the European Union States’ obligations and victims’ rights. Luxembourg: FRA. Available online: https://fra.europa.eu/sites/default/files/fra-2015-severe-labour-exploitation_en.pdf.

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights [FRA] (2019). Protecting migrant workers from exploitation in the EU: Workers’ perspectives. Luxembourg: FRA. Available online: https://www.servicestelle-gegen-zwangsarbeit.de/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/2019-FRA-Protecting-migrant-workers-from-exploitation-in-the-EU-Workers-1.pdf.

Gallagher A. (2016). ‘Editorial: The problems and prospects of trafficking prosecutions: Ending impunity and securing justice’. Anti-trafficking Review 6, pp. 1–5.

GRETA (2013). Report concerning the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings by Belgium. First evaluation round. Available online: https://rm.coe.int/1680630d0f [5.02.2021].

GRETA (2017). Report concerning the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings by Belgium. Second evaluation round. Available online: https://rm.coe.int/greta-2017-26-frg-bel-en/1680782ae0 [5.02.2021].

Huberts C. (2006). ‘Les innovations de la loi du 10 août 2005 modifiant diverses dispositions en vue de renforcer la lutte contre la traite et le trafic des êtres humains et contre les pratiques des marchands de sommeil’ [The innovations of the law of 10 August 2005 modifying various provisions in order to reinforce the fight against trafficking and smuggling of human beings and against the practices of slum landlords]. Journal du Droit des Jeunes 251, pp. 6–22.

Huberts C. and Minet J.-F. (2014). ‘La loi du 29 avril 2013 visant à modifier l’article 433quinquies du Code pénal en vue de clarifier et d’étendre la définition de la traite des êtres humains: analyse et mise en perspective’ [The law of 29 April 2013 to amend Article 433quinquies of the Criminal Code to clarify and extend the definition of trafficking in human beings: analysis and perspective]. Revue de Droit Pénal de de Criminologie 34, pp. 6–48.

ILO. Global Estimate of Forced Labour 2012: Results and Methodology (2012). Geneva, United Nations. Available online: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---declaration/documents/publication/wcms_182004.pdf [11.02.2021].

Inter-American Court of Human Rights [IACHR], 20.10.2016. Case of Hacienda Brasil Verde Workers v. Brazil. Available online: https://www.corteidh.or.cr/docs/casos/articulos/resumen_318_esp.pdf [11.02.2021].

International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia [ICTY], 12.06.2002. Case of Prosecutor v. Dragoljub Kunarac, Radomir Kovac and Zoran Vukovic, application no. IT-96-23, IT-96-23/1-A. Available online: https://www.refworld.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/rwmain?docid=3debaafe4 [11.02.2021].

Kelly L. (2007). ‘A conducive context: Trafficking of persons in Central Asia’. In M. Lee (ed.) Human Trafficking. Devon: Willan Publishing, pp. 73–91.

Kotiswaran P. (2015). ‘Protocol at the Crossroads: Rethinking anti-trafficking law from an Indian labour law perspective’. Antitrafficking Review 4, pp. 33–55.

Kurz F. (2008). ‘Lutte contre le travail forcé, l’exploitation économique et la traite des êtres humains: Des concepts légaux à l’application judiciaire’ [Combating forced labour, economic exploitation and trafficking in human beings: From legal concepts to judicial enforcement]. Chroniques de Droit Social N° ind. - 08/09/2008, pp. 317–330.

Liège Court of First Instance, Belgium, 14.01.2013. 14 ème ch.

Liège Court of First Instance, Belgium, 8.02.2016. 18 ème ch.

Maul D. (2011). ‘ILO and globalisation of human rights’. In S.L. Hoffmann (ed.) Human Rights in the 20th Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 301–320.

Milano V. (2017). ‘The European Court of Human Rights’ case law on human trafficking in light of L.E. v Greece: A disturbing setback?’. Human Rights Law Review 17, pp. 701–727.

Minet J.F. (2006). ‘Chronique de Législation Pénale (année 2005)’ [Chronicle of Criminal Legislation (year 2005)]. Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie 3, pp. 240–280.

Ministry of Justice and Security (Ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid) (2020). Moties en toezeggingen op het gebied van mensenhandel. Brief aan de Aan de Voorzitter van de Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal [Motions and commitments on human trafficking. Letter to the President of the Lower House of the States General], 1 July 2020. Available online: https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken/detail?id=2020Z12976&did=2020D27680 [11.02.2021].

Mons Court of Appeal, Belgium, 10.02.2016. 4 ème ch.

Nicholson A. (2010). ‘Reflections on Siliadin v France: Slavery and legal definition’. International Journal of Human Rights 14(5), pp. 705–720.

Paavilainen M. (2015). ‘Towards a cohesive and contextualised response: When is it necessary to distinguish between forced labour, trafficking in persons and slavery?’. Anti-Trafficking Review 5, pp. 158–161.

Parkes C. (2015). ‘The trafficking protocol has advanced the global movement against human exploitation: The case of the United Kingdom’. Anti-Trafficking Review 4, pp. 150–155.

Piotrowicz R. (2012). ‘States’ obligations under human rights law towards victims of trafficking in human beings: Positive developments in positive obligations’. International Journal of Refugee Law 24(2), pp. 181–201.

Pope J. (2010). ‘A free labor approach to human trafficking’. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 158, pp. 1849–1875.

Rijken C. (2013). ‘Trafficking in human beings for labour exploitation: Cooperation in an integrated approach’. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 21(1), pp. 9–35.

Scharwz K. and Allain J. (2020). Antislavery in domestic legislation: An empirical analysis of national prohibition globally. University of Nottingham Rights Lab. Available online: https://antislaverylaw.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Antislavery-in-Domestic-Legislation-report-110220.pdf [11.02.2021].

Stoyanova V. (2012). ‘Dancing on the borders of article 4: Human trafficking and the European Court of Human Rights in the Rantsev case’. Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights 30(2), p. 163–194.

Stoyanova V. (2014). ‘Article 4 of the ECHR and the obligation of criminalizing slavery, servitude, forced labour and human trafficking’. Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law 3(2), pp. 407–433.

Stoyanova V. (2017). Human trafficking and slavery reconsidered conceptual limits and states' positive obligations in European Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Thorp A. and Young R. (2003). Asylum and Immigration: The 2003 Bill. London : House of Commons Library. Available online: http://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/RP03-88/RP03-88.pdf [11.02.2021].

UNODC (2009). Global report on trafficking in persons 2009. Geneva: United Nations. Available online: https://www.unodc.org/documents/human-trafficking/Global_Report_on_TIP.pdf [11.02.2021].

UNODC (2010). Model Law against Trafficking in Persons. Available online: https://www.unodc.org/documents/human-trafficking/UNODC_Model_Law_on_Trafficking_in_Persons.pdf [11.02.2021].

UNODC (2015). Issue Paper: The Concept of "Exploitation" in the Trafficking in Persons Protocol. Vienna: United Nations. Available online: https://www.unodc.org/documents/congress/background-information/Human_Trafficking/UNODC_2015_Issue_Paper_Exploitation.pdf [11.02.2021].

Vermeulen G. (2006). La politique belge en matiere des traite des êtres humains: Etat des lieux, Évaluation et options futures [Belgian policy in the mater of human trafficking. Inventory, Evaluation and Future Options]. Bruxelles: Fondation Roi Baudouin. Available online: https://www.kbs-frb.be/fr/~/media/Files/Bib/Publications/Older/PUB-1638-Traite-Etres-humains.pdf [4.02.2021].

Weatherburn A. (2019). Clarifying the scope of labour exploitation in human trafficking law: Towards a legal conceptualisation of exploitation. Tilburg: Tilburg University.

Weatherburn A. (2020). ‘Improving prosecutions of human trafficking for labour exploitation: Lessons learned from two European jurisdictions’. Journal of Human Trafficking, Enslavement and Conflict-Related Sexual Violence 1, pp. 49–65.

Wijers M. (2015). ‘Purity, victimhood and agency: Fifteen years of the UN Trafficking Protocol’. Anti-Trafficking Review 4, pp. 56–79.

Wilt H. van der (2014). ‘Trafficking in human beings, enslavement, crimes against humanity: Unravelling the concepts’. Chinese Journal of International law 13, pp. 297–334.

Creative Commons License

Utwór dostępny jest na licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa 4.0 Międzynarodowe.

Copyright (c) 2021 INP PAN

Pobrania

Download data is not yet available.