Debt bondage in human trafficking: US agriculture and Thailand fisheries primed for labour exploitation

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Słowa kluczowe

trafficking
debt-bondage
corporate social responsibility
Global Horizons
Thailand
fishing
agriculture
handel ludźmi
niewola za długi
społeczna odpowiedzialność biznesu
Tajlandia
rybołówstwo
rolnictwo

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Musikawong, S., & Rzonca, P. (2021). Debt bondage in human trafficking: US agriculture and Thailand fisheries primed for labour exploitation: Niewola za długi: rolnictwo Stanów Zjednoczonych i rybołówstwo Tajlandii gotowe na pracę przymusową. Archiwum Kryminologii, (XLIII/1), 169–193. https://doi.org/10.7420/AK2021.11

Abstrakt

There is a need for a transnational framework that would redefine labour trafficking in terms of debt bondage and challenge the privileges of legal contracts at the expense of migrant workers’ human and labour rights. We argue that anti-trafficking legislation in the US and Thailand is expansive in definition, but its application is too restrictive to deliver justice to the victims. The debt-labour industry easily becomes a form of transnational labour trafficking. We examine Thailand as an origin and destination country for labour trafficking through two cases involving the US and Thailand though a Marxist and liberal analysis that considers critical race theory. The limitations in which these cases could not achieve full justice represent the challenges for transnational labour rights for noncitizen migrant workers. We examine the Global Horizons agricultural labour case, 2002–2012, and Thailand’s fishing sector, which led to its Tier 3 ranking in the 2014 Trafficking in Persons Report. This report was used in international campaigns to pressurise corporate industries and retailers to change their code of conduct, necessitating considerations of the effectiveness of supply chain responsibility.

 

Zarówno amerykańskie, jak i tajskie przypadki łamania praw pracowniczych i praw człowieka wykorzystywanych do pracy przymusowej opierają się na systemie związania długiem (debt bondage). Można wręcz powiedzieć, że oparty na umowach oraz czasowych wizach migracyjnych do pracy amerykański system imigracyjny jest częścią procederu handlu ludźmi do pracy przymusowej. Stąd istnieje potrzeba stworzenia ponadnarodowych ram, które zdefiniowałyby na nowo handel ludźmi do pracy przymusowej, uznając za jego element również związanie długiem (czy też inaczej niewolę za długi). Podważyłoby to legalność zawieranych obecnie umów naruszających prawa człowieka i prawa pracownicze osób migrujących. Przepisy dotyczące zwalczania handlu ludźmi w USA i Tajlandii są obszerne, ale ich stosowanie jest zbyt restrykcyjne i nie pozwala zagwarantować pokrzywdzonym poczucia sprawiedliwości. Związanie długiem dość łatwo jest wykorzystywane w międzynarodowym handlu ludźmi do pracy przymusowej. Autorzy artykułu badaniu poddali Tajlandię jako kraj pochodzenia i kraj docelowy handlu ludźmi. Przy wykorzystaniu analizy marksistowskiej i liberalnej, a zatem uwzględniając krytyczną teorię rasy, zbadali dwie sprawy dotyczące Stanów Zjednoczonych i Tajlandii. Zidentyfikowane w nich ograniczenia utrudniające wymierzenie sprawiedliwości stanowią wyzwanie dla transgranicznych praw pracowniczych pracowników migrujących. Są to sprawy dotyczące wykorzystania do pracy w rolnictwie przez Global Horizons w latach 2002–2012 oraz w tajlandzkim sektorze rybołówstwa, który w raporcie Trafficking in Persons z 2014 roku został sklasyfikowany w trzecim, najniższym poziomie ochrony (Tier 3). Raport ten został wykorzystany w międzynarodowych kampaniach mających na celu wywarcie presji na globalne korporacje i sprzedawców detalicznych, aby zmienili sposób postępowania i zastanowili się nad skutecznością oraz swoją odpowiedzialnością w ramach łańcucha dostaw.

https://doi.org/10.7420/AK2021.11
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