Elite punitive populism and youth justice reform in Chile: Legitimizing a new political order

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Słowa kluczowe

Chilean Youth Justice
punitive populism
authoritarianism
democratization processes
Latin America
chilijski wymiar sprawiedliwości dla nieletnich
populizm penalny
autorytaryzm
demokratyzacja
Ameryka Łacińska

Jak cytować

Rodriguez Gutierrez, D. (2022). Elite punitive populism and youth justice reform in Chile: Legitimizing a new political order: Populizm penalny elit a reforma wymiaru sprawiedliwości dla nieletnich w Chile: legitymizacja nowego porządku politycznego. Archiwum Kryminologii, (XLIV/1), 171–196. https://doi.org/10.7420/AK2021.25

Abstrakt

Chilean youth justice went through a drastic reform process during the 2000s, it was the second radical youth justice reform movement in the country since the creation of the Law of Minors in 1928. The decision to reform took place as Chile transitioned and stabilized into democracy after the authoritarian regime of the 1970s and 1980s. Superficially, it seems this is just one more way of embracing democracy and Human Rights. However, after in depth documental analysis of both the reform and the socio-political context, this paper offers a different insight and an explanation for the sudden relevance of youth justice, as a tool used by authoritarian political elites that then filtered into the political elite of the new democracy. In this context, populism played a key role in spreading concerns about youth offending and the need for a new youth justice which worked to strengthen the legitimacy of authoritarian practices in the new Chilean democratic order. It was an elite-driven populism that transformed youth justice into a key social and political concern.

 

W 2000 roku chilijski wymiar sprawiedliwości dla nieletnich został poddany drastycznemu procesowi reform. Od czasu powstania prawa o dzieciach w 1928 roku był to drugi radykalny ruch na rzecz reformy wymiaru sprawiedliwości dla nieletnich w tym kraju. Decyzję o reformie podjęto, gdy po reżimie autorytarnym lat 70. i 80. XX wieku, Chile zmieniało ustrój polityczny i stabilizowało się jako republika demokratyczna. Pozornie wydawać by się mogło, że reforma była tylko kolejnym sposobem na wprowadzenie ustroju demokratycznego i praw człowieka. Niniejszy artykuł, w oparciu o pogłębioną analizę dokumentacyjną reformy, jak i kontekstu społeczno-politycznego, w którym ona zaszła, wyjaśnia nagłe zainteresowanie autorytarnych elit politycznych wymiarem sprawiedliwości dla nieletnich jako narzędziem, które pozwoliło im przeniknąć do elit politycznych nowej demokracji. W tym kontekście populizm odegrał kluczową rolę w szerzeniu obaw dotyczących przestępczości nieletnich oraz w rozbudzaniu potrzeby budowy nowego wymiaru sprawiedliwości dla nieletnich. Proces ten miał jednak na celu wzmocnienie legitymacji autorytarnych praktyk w nowym chilijskim porządku demokratycznym. To populizm napędzany przez elity przekształcił wymiar sprawiedliwości dla nieletnich w kluczowy problem społeczny i polityczny.

https://doi.org/10.7420/AK2021.25
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