Geography of crime. Remarks on spatial analyses of crime with the use of digital technologies
- geography of crime,
- crime patterns
How to Cite
The article discusses the issue of digital technologies use for practical applications of the principles of modern ecologic currents in criminology. The phenomenon of crime is not distributed evenly in time and space. Detailed analysis of this regularity is possible owing to crime map making. The tradition of such map making originates in the 19th century and roots from the cartographic school. Their representatives conducted analyses basing on the data coming from French police statistics. More advanced studies on spatial distribution of crime, whose authors created theoretical conceptions attempting at explaining this phenomenon, originate from the Chicago school. In our times, with the advancement of computerisation, technical capabilities of modern computers and availability of good and reliable software, crime maps are becoming an even more easily accessible and effective tool in the analysis of the phenomenon of crime. Geographic information system (GIS) is the technology currently employed for spatial analyses. It allows introducing, storing, processing and visualising geographical data. Geocoding technology enables translation to geographic coordinates and digital map making containing information on the criminal events in a given city. GIS is used in criminological analyses in two main areas: digital crime map making and geographic profiling. Crime mapping is a tool for spatial analyses of criminal incidents which consists in putting together the time and place of crime to investigate spatial patterns of criminal behaviours and hot spots. It also enables to analyse criminal incidents according to various spatial variables e.g. to compare crime scene locations with locations like bars or schools, with demographic data concerning investigated areas etc. The idea of crime mapping has its roots in theoretical assumptions of environmental criminology which seeks relations between crime and its environmental and geographic determinants. Studies on crime scene locations are related mainly to the idea of hot spots, that is places where more criminal incidents than the average are reported. Crime maps are a useful tool which enables the analysts equipped with adequate criminological knowledge to seek the reasons for concentration of criminal activity in the area. In practice, digital maps are used by the police to obtain geographical data about a given area and to manage police units. Advanced use of GIS is made in everyday work of police forces in the USA and UK. Maps can also allow the data on crime statistics on a given area to be accessed by local communities. Geographic profiling is another GIS application enabling use of criminological knowledge. It allows to establish the most likely estimated place of residence of serial offenders. A profile is made based on information concerning crime location and other places of significance to the incident (eg. place where the corpse was abandoned).
- Anselin N., Griffiths E., Tita G., Crime mapping and hot spot analysis [w:] R. Wortley, L. Mazerolle (red.), Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis, Willan Publishing, Portland 2008.
- Bielecka E., Systemy informacji geograficznej. Teoria i zastosowanie, Wydawnictwo PJWSTK, Warszawa 2006.
- Boba R., Crime Analysis and Crime Mapping, Sage, Thousand Oaks 2005.
- Bourque J., LeBlanc S., Utzschneider A., Wright C., The Effectiveness of Profiling from a National Security Perspective, Canadian Race Relations Foundation, Ottawa 2009.
- Brantingham P.J., Brantingham P.L., Notes on the geometry of crime [w:] P.L. Brantingham, P.J. Brantingham (red.), Environmental Criminology, Waveland Press, Prospect Heights 1991.
- Brantingham P.L., Brantingham P.J., Anticipating the Displacement of Crime [w:] D. Cornish, M. Smith (red.), Theory for Practice in Situational Crime Prevention, Crime Prevention Studies, vol. 16, Criminal Justice Press, Monsey 2003.
- Brantingham P.L., Brantingham P.J., Criminality of place. Crime generators and crime attractors, „European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research” 1995, nr 3.
- Brantingham P.L., Brantingham P.J., Introduction. The Dimensions of crime [w:] P.L. Brantingham, P.J. Brantingham (red.), Environmental criminology, SAGE Publications, London 1981.
- Canter D., A Comparison of the efficacy of different decay functions in geographical profiling for a sample of us serial killers, „Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling” 2006, t. 3, nr 2.
- Canter D., Coffey T., Huntley M., Missen C., Predicting Serial killers’ home base using a decision support system, „Journal of Quantitative Criminology” 2000, t. 16, nr 4.
- Canter D., Larkin P., The environmental range of serial rapists, „Journal of Environmental Psychology” 1993, t. 13, nr 1.
- Canter D., Mapping murder. The secrets of geographical profiling, Virgin Books, London 2007.
- Capone D., Nichols W.W., Urban structure and criminal mobility, „American Behavioral Scientist” 1976, t. 20, nr 2.
- Chainey S., Smith C., Review of GIS-based information sharing systems, „Home Office On-line Report” 02/06.
- Chapin F.S., Brent R.K., Human Activity Systems in Metropolitan United States, „Environment and Behaviour” 1969, t. 1, nr 2.
- Clarke R.V., Eck J.E., Become a Problem-Solving Crime Analyst In 55 Small Steps, London Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science, London 2003.
- Clarke R.V., Felson M., Routine Activity and Rational Choice, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick-London 1993.
- Clines F.X., The hunt for a sniper. The Overview, „The New York Times” z 25.10.2002 r.
- Cohen L.W., Felson M., Social Change and crime rate trends: a routine activity approach, „American Sociological Review” 1979 t. 44, nr 4.
- Cornish D., The Procedural analysis of offending and its relevance for situational prevention [w:] R.V. Clarke (red.), Crime Prevention Studies, vol. 3, Criminal Justice Press, Monsey, Nowy Jork 1994.
- Cornish D.B., Clarke R.V., The rational choice perspective [w:] R. Wortley, L. Mazerolle (red.), Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis, Willan Publishing, Portland 2008.
- Costanzo C.M., Halperin W.C., Gale N., Criminal mobility and the directional component in journeys to crime [w:] R.M. Figlio, S. Hakim, G.F. Rengert (red.), Metropolitan Crime Patterns, Criminal Justice Press, Monsey, Criminal Justice Press, Nowy Jork 1986.
- Crime mapping. Improving performance, Home Office, 2005.
- Eck J.E., Crime hot spots. Where they are, why we have them, and how to map them [w:] J.E. Eck, S. Chainey, J.G. Cameron, M. Leitner, R.E. Wilson, Mapping Crime. Understanding Hot Spots, U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, Waszyngton 2005.
- Eldridge J.E., Jones J.P., Warped space. A geography of distance decay, „Professional Geographer” 1991, t. 43, nr 4.
- Felson M., Clarke R.V., Opportunity Makes the Thief, Police Research Series, Paper 98. Policing and Reducing Crime Unit, Research, Development and Statistics Directorate, Home Office, Londyn 1998.
- „Geography and public safety. A Quarterly Bulletin of Applied Geography for the Study of Crime & Public Safety” 2008, t. 1, nr 1.
- Harries K., Mapping Crime. Principle and Practice, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, 1999.
- Herbert D.T., Crime and place. An introduction [w:] D.J. Evans, D.T. Herbert (red.), The Geography of Crime, Routledge, Londyn, Nowy York 1989.
- Hodge S., Canter D., Predatory Patterns of Serial Murderers, Internal Report, Centre for Investigative Psychology, Liverpool 1998.
- Johnson S.D., Birks D.J., McLaughlin L., Bowers K.J., Pease K., Prospective crime mapping in operational context, „Home Office Online Report” 19/07.
- Kelling G., Pate T., Diekman D., Brown C., The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment. Summary Report, Police Foundation, Washington 1994.
- Kelly L., Worboys M., Duckham M., GIS. A computing perspective, CRC Press, Boca Raton 2004.
- Kind S.S., Navigational ideas and the Yorkshire Ripper investigation, „The Journal of Navigation” 1987 t. 40, nr 3.
- Kocsis R.N., Criminal Profiling. Principles and Practice, Humana Press, Totowa 2006.
- Kocsis R.N., Irwin H.J., An analysis of spatial patterns in serial rape, arson, and burglary. The utility of the Circle Theory of environmental range for psychological profiling, „Psychiatry, Psychology and Law” 1997, t. 4, nr 2.
- Kossowska A., Przestępczość na terenie Warszawy. Analiza ekologiczna, „Archiwum Kryminologii” 1976, t. VII, s. 141-263, https://doi.org/10.7420/AK1976B.
- Levy J., Careers in Criminal Profiling, The Rosen Publishing Group, New York 2008.
- Mapy przestępczości, „Geodeta” 2008, nr 9/160.
- Newburn T., Criminology, Willan Publishing, Cullompton 2007.
- Orleans P., Differential cognition of urban residents. Effects of social scales of mapping [w:] R.M. Downs, D. Stea (red.), Image and Environment, Aldine, Chicago 1973.
- Paulsen D., Human versus machine. A comparison of the accuracy of geographic profiling methods, „Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling” 2006, t. 3, nr 2.
- Paulsen D.J., Connecting the dots. Assessing the accuracy of geographic profiling software, „Policing. An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management” 2006, t. 29, nr 2.
- Pyle G.F., The Spatial Dynamics of Crime, Department of Geography, University of Chicago, Chicago 1974.
- Rengert G.F., Auto theft in Central Philadelphia [w:] R. Homel (red.), Policing for Prevention. Reducing Crime, Public Intoxication and Injury, Crime Prevention Study, nr 7, Criminal Justice Press, Monsey, Nowy Jork 1997.
- Rengert G.F., Wasilchick T., Suburban Burglary, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield 1985.
- Rhodes W.M., Conly C., Crime and mobility. An empirical study [w:] P.J. Brantingham, P.L. Brantingham (red.), Environmental Criminology, Waveland Press, 1991.
- Rossmo D.K., Geographic profiling, CRC Press, 1999.
- Rossmo D.K., Rombouts S., Geographic profiling [w:] R. Wortley, L. Mazerolle (red.), Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis, Willan Publishing, Cullompton 2008.
- Sherman L., Gartin P., Buerger M., Hot spots and predatory crime. Routine activities and the criminology of place, „Criminology” 1989, t. 27, nr 1.
- Tamura M., Suzuki M., Criminal profiling research on serial arson. Examination of circle hypothesis estimating offender’s residential area, „Reports of the National Research Institute of Police Science. Research on Prevention of Crime and Delinquency” 1997, t. 38, nr 1.
- Turvey B.E., Criminal Profiling. An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence, Academic Press, Amsterdam 2008.
- van Vliet W., Exploring the fourth environment. An examination of the home range of city and suburban teenagers, „Environment and Behavior” 1983, t. 15, nr 5.
- Weisburd D., McEwen T., Crime mapping and crime prevention [w:] D. Weisburd, T. McEwen (red.), Crime Prevention Studies, vol. 8, Criminal Justice Press, Monsey, Nowy Jork 1997.
- Wiles P., Costello A., The Road to Nowhere: the evidence for travelling criminals, Home Office Research Study 2000, nr 207.
- Wortley R., Mazerolle L. (red.), Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis, Willan Publishing, Portland 2008.