Foreign minors and forced labour in contemporary Italy

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Słowa kluczowe

child labour
Italy
trafficking
vulnerability of minors
case study methodology
praca dzieci
Włochy
handel ludźmi
bezbronność dzieci
metodologia studium przypadku

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Policek, N. (2021). Foreign minors and forced labour in contemporary Italy: Małoletni cudzoziemcy i praca przymusowa we współczesnych Włoszech. Archiwum Kryminologii, (XLIII/1), 195–222. https://doi.org/10.7420/AK2021.12

Abstrakt

The labour of foreign minors living in Italy fits into a double scenario: on the one hand, it evokes aspects or lifestyles typical of their original culture and therefore represents an experience of continuity with it; on the other hand, it is placed in the context of the host country, where young migrants are often employed in low-skilled jobs or are forced to enter the job market as a means to support themselves and their family. This is an entirely transversal problem in the country, concerning both the more industrialised areas of the North and the more agricultural areas of the South. The sectors where the labour of minors is more widespread are commerce, catering, agriculture, and services. Case studies relating to the experiences of young Chinese migrants and children of Moroccan descent living in Italy are presented in this article. The concluding section suggests that there is no single causal factor responsible for child labour. Indeed, subsistence poverty, inequalities in accessing the labour market and parental choices or constraints may influence the decision to coerce a minor to work.

 

Praca małoletnich cudzoziemców mieszkających we Włoszech może mieć dwa scenariusze. Pierwszy z nich odnosi się do stylu życia typowego dla kultury, z której się wywodzą migranci (i stanowi jej powielenie oraz przedłużenie), gdzie praca dzieci jest czymś powszechnym. Drugi zaś związany jest z sytuacją na rynku pracy we Włoszech, czyli w kraju przyjmującym, w którym młodzi migranci często są zatrudniani na stanowiskach wymagających niskich kwalifikacji lub są zmuszani do podjęcia pracy w celu utrzymania siebie i swojej rodziny. Problem ten widoczny jest w całym kraju – dotyczy zarówno bardziej uprzemysłowionych obszarów na północy, jak i bardziej rolniczych na południu. Sektory, w których praca dzieci jest najbardziej rozpowszechniona, to handel, gastronomia, rolnictwo i usługi. W artykule przedstawiono studium przypadków opierające się na doświadczeniach młodych migrantów z Chin oraz dzieci pochodzenia marokańskiego, mieszkających we Włoszech. W zakończeniu artykułu podkreślono, że nie ma jednej przyczyny odpowiadającej za pracę dzieci. Czynniki takie jak: głębokie ubóstwo, nierówności w dostępie do rynku pracy, a także wybory rodziców i przymus z ich strony, mogą wpływać na podjęcie decyzji o zmuszeniu dziecka do podjęcia pracy.

https://doi.org/10.7420/AK2021.12
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