The characteristics of trafficking in human beings in Hungary and Romania

Zgłoś artykuł

PDF (English)

Słowa kluczowe

trafficking in human beings
Romania
Hungary
exploitation
crime groups
handel ludźmi
Rumunia
Węgry
wykorzystywanie
grupy przestępcze

Jak cytować

Windt, S., & Deres, P. (2020). The characteristics of trafficking in human beings in Hungary and Romania: Charakterystyka zjawiska handlu ludźmi na Węgrzech i w Rumunii. Archiwum Kryminologii, (XLII/1), 139–161. https://doi.org/10.7420/AK2020M

Abstrakt

Hungary and Romania are both origin and transit countries for victims of human trafficking, considering the lack of work opportunities and the deep poverty in some parts of these countries. The TIP Report1 for 2019 lists both Hungary and Romania on the Tier 2 Watch List2 for different reasons. National and international organisations report an alarmingly high number of trafficking cases in both countries, while the number of trafficking investigations and the sentences for these crimes are low. Since 2010, the leadership of the two countries has tried to meet American and European expectations through various measures. New laws have been created in both Hungary and Romania, and there are numerous regulations that deal with victims of trafficking in human beings (hereinafter: THB). This desk research study, based on a comparison of Romania and Hungary, provides insights into the characteristics of THB in these countries.

 

Węgry i Rumunia są uznawane zarówno za kraje pochodzenia, jak i kraje tranzytu ofiar handlu ludźmi. Wynika to z braku możliwości podjęcia pracy i głębokiego ubóstwa panującego w niektórych częściach tych krajów. W raporcie “Trafficking in Persons” (the TIP Report) za 2019 r., wydawanym przez Biuro ds. Monitorowania i Zwalczania Handlu Ludźmi Departamentu Stanu USA, oba kraje zostały wymienione wśród państw, które – pomimo podejmownanych wysiłków – nie spełniają minimalnych standardów określonych w Trafficking Victims Protection Act. Różne krajowe i międzynarodowe organizacje informują o dramatycznie zwiększającej się liczbie przypadków handlu ludźmi w każdym z tych krajów, ale jednocześnie o niewielkiej liczbie prowadzonych postępowań karnych i skazań za to przestępstwo. Od 2010 r. rządy Węgier i Rumunii, wykorzystując różne instrumenty, starają się doprowadzić do implementacji amerykańskich i europejskich zaleceń. W każdym z tych krajów zostały wprowadzone nowe przepisy dotyczące postępowania z ofiarami handlu ludźmi. Analiza danych zastanych pozwoliła na charakterystykę i porównanie nowo przyjętych rozwiązań w obu państwach.

https://doi.org/10.7420/AK2020M
PDF (English)

Bibliografia

Analiză Succintă Privind Trafcul De Persoane În 2017 – Perspectivă Victimologică, [Short Analysis on Trafficking in Persons In 2017: A Victimological Perspective] (2017). Available online: http://www.anitp.mai.gov.ro/ro/docs/Cercetare/Analize/analiza%20succinta%20victime%20identifcate%20in%202017%20mod.pdf [13.11.2019].

Anghel R., Herczog M., Dima G. (2013). ‘The challenge of reforming child protection in Eastern Europe: The cases of Hungary and Romania’, Psychosocial Intervention 22, pp. 239–249.

Antoniu G. (ed.), Duvac C., Lămăşanu D.I., Pascu I., Sima C., Toader T., Vasiu I. (2013). Explicatii preliminare ale noului Cod penal, vol. III., Articolele 188–256, Partea speciala, Titlul I Infractiuni contra persoanei, Titlul II Infractiuni contra patrimoniului [Preliminary explanations of the new Criminal Code, vol. III, Articles 188–256, Special Part Title I, Offences against the person, Title II Crimes against the patrimony]. Bucharest: Editura Universul Juridic.

Baracsi K., Katona N., Sebhelyi V., Vidra Zs. (eds.) (2015). Child Trafficking in Hungary: Sexual Exploitation, Forced Begging and Pickpocketing. Budapest: Central European University.

Belovics E. (2018). ‘Emberkereskedelem’ [Trafficking in Human Beings]. In E. Belovics (ed.) Büntetőjog II. Különös Rész [Criminal Law II: Special Part]. Budapest: HVG-ORAC Lap- és Könyvkiadó Kf., pp.185–190.

Belügyminisztérium Európai Együttműködési Főosztály (n.d.), Emberkereskedelem elleni küzdelem Magyarországon [Fight against trafficking in human beings in Hungary]. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/anti-trafcking/sites/antitrafcking/fles/thb_overview_hungary_hu_pdf.pdf [9.12.2019].

Bíró G. (2003). ‘Átruházó szerződések’ [Transferring contracts], Polgári Jogi Kodifkáció 2, pp. 14–30.

Boroi A. (2014). Drept penal. Partea speciala conform Noului Cod penal [Criminal Law: The Special Part According to the New Criminal Code]. Bucuresti: C.H. Beck.

Buzatu N.-E. (2018). ‘The trafficking in human beings crime in Romania’. In J. Puaschunder (ed.), Proceedings of the 9th International RAIS Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities. Beltsville: Te Scientifc Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 223–234.

Caracteristicile victimelor trafcului de persoane identifcate în perioada ianuarie-iunie 2019 [The characteristics of the victims of trafficking in persons, identified January–June 2019] (2019). Available online: http://www.anitp.mai.gov.ro/ro/docs/Cercetare/Analize/analiza%20semestriala%202019_2.pdf [11.12.2019].

Council of Europe (2019). Extreme poverty afflicts many of the 10–12 million Roma in Europe, Council of Europe. Newsroom. Available online: https://www.coe.int/en/web/roma-and-travellers/-/extreme-poverty-aficts-many-of-the-10-12-millionroma-in-europe%20 [2.12.2019].

Cristiean V. (2017). Drept penal. Partea specială I. Infracțiuni contra persoanei. Infracțiuni contra patrimoniului [Criminal Law: Special Part I: Crimes against the Person, Crimes against Property]. Bucharest: C.H. Beck.

Czine Á. (2011). Az emberkereskedelem, mint a szervezett bűnözés egyik megjelenési formája [Trafficking in Human Beings: Like a Form of Organised crime], PhD Tesis, Pécs.

Dimitrova K., Ivanova S., Alexandrova Y. (2015). Child trafficking among vulnerable Roma communities. Center for the Study of Democracy. Available online: https://childhub.org/en/system/tdf/library/attachments/confront_synthesis_report.pdf?fle=1&type=node&id=20199 [14.04.2020].

Duguleanǎ C. (2011). ‘Effects of the economic crisis in Romania’, SEER: Journal for Labour and Social Affairs in Eastern Europe 1(14), pp. 17–25.

Emberi Erőforrások Minisztériuma Szociális És Társadalmi Felzárkózásért Felelős Államtitkárság (2014). Magyar Nemzeti Társadalmi Felzárkózási Stratégia, Tartósan Rászorulók–Szegény Családban Élő Gyermekek–Romák (2011–2020) [Hungarian National Social Inclusion Strategy, Long-term Needy Children – Roma (2011–2020)]. Available online: https://www.kormany.hu/download/1/9c/20000/Magyar%20NTFS%20II%_2%20mell%20_NTFS%20II.pdf [13.11.2019].

Euractiv (2016). Romania turns its back on dark past of Roma slavery. Available online: https://www.euractiv.com/section/social-europe-jobs/news/romania-turns-itsback-on-dark-past-of-roma-slavery/ [11.05.2019].

European Commission (2018),Data collection on trafficking in human beings in the EU. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/fles/what-we-do/policies/european-agenda-security/20181204_data-collection-study.pdf [13.11.2019].

European Union Agency for Criminal Justice Cooperation [Eurojust] (2020), Annual Report of Eurojust 2019. Eurojust: Te Hague. Available online: http://www.eurojust.europa.eu/doclibrary/corporate/eurojust%20Annual%20Reports/Annual%20Report%202019/AR2019_EN.pdf [14.04.2020].

European Union Agency for Criminal Justice Cooperation [Eurojust] (2018), Annual Report of Eurojust 2017. Eurojust: Te Hague. Available online: http://www.eurojust.europa.eu/doclibrary/corporate/eurojust%20Annual%20Reports/Annual%20Report%202017/AR2017_HU.pdf [14.04.2020].

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights [FRA] (2019), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey of Roma women in nine EU member states. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Available online: https://fra.europa.eu/sites/default/fles/fra_uploads/fra-2019-eu-minorities-survey-romawomen_en.pdf [2.12.2019].

Europol (2016), Situation Report Trafficking in human beings in the EU. Available online: https://www.europol.europa.eu/publications-documents/trafficking-in-humanbeings-in-eu [3.12.2019].

Eurostat (2019), People at risk of poverty or social exclusion. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=People_at_risk_of_poverty_or_social_exclusion&redirect=no [17.12.2019].

Francis B., Walby S., Pattinson B., Elliott A., Hoti V., Phoenix J., Verrall R., Peelo M. (2018). Data collection on trafficking in human beings in the EU: Final report (10.2837/193237). Luxembourg: European Union.

Gellér B.J. (2013). ‘Emberkereskedelem’. In P. Polt (ed.), Új Btk. kommentár 3. kötet [Commentary on the New Criminal Code 3.]. Budapest: Nemzeti Közszolgálati és Tankönyv Kiadó Zrt.158 Petronella Deres, Szandra Windt

Gerencsér B.S. (2015). ‘Special legal orders’. In Z.A. Varga, A. Patyi, B. Schanda (eds.), The Basic Law of Hungary: A Commentary of the New Hungarian Constitution, Dublin, pp. 305–320.

Hollán M. (2012). Emberkereskedelem – A kizsákmányolás büntetendő esetei és a büntetőjogi szabályozás atárai [Trafficking in Human Beings – Criminalization of Exploitation and Limits of Regulation of Criminal Law]. Budapest: HVG-ORAC.

Iovu M (2015). Sex Trafficking in Romania: The Institutional and Legal Context (Master’s Tesis International Administration and Global Governance), University of Gothenburg.

Karsai K., Gál A., Hegedűs I., Juhász Z., Mezőlaki E., Szomora Z., Törő S. (2019). Nagykommentár a Büntető Törvénykönyvről szóló 2012. évi C. törvényhez [Commentary on Act C of 2012 on the Criminal Code]. Available online: https://uj.jogtar.hu/#doc/db/346/id/A13Y1369.KK/ts/20190101/lr/chain3468/ [7.11.2019].

Karsai K., Szomora Z. (eds.) (2015). Criminal Law in Hungary. The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International.

Lascu I. (2013). ‘The meaning of some terms or expressions in new criminal law (II)’, Criminal Law Magazine 1.

Mai N. (2010). The Psycho-Social Trajectories of Albanian and Romanian ‘Traffickers’, London Metropolitan University. Available online: https://metranet.londonmet.ac.uk/fms/MRSite/Research/iset/Working%20Paper%20Series/WP17%20N%20Mai.pdf [1.12.2019].

Migration Data Portal (2019), Key Migration statistics on Romania and Hungary in 2018. Available online: https://migrationdataportal.org/?i=stock_abs_&t=2019&cm49=642 [3.12.2019].

Mikrocensus 2016 (2016). Available online: https://www.ksh.hu/mikrocenzus2016/kotet_12_nemzetisegi_adatok [6.12.2019].

MTI-Hungary Today (2019), Council of Europe: Hungary Progress in the Fight against Human Trafficking, MTI-Hungary Today. Available online: https://hungarytoday.hu/council-of-europe-hungary-human-trafcking/ [14.04.2020].

National Agency against Trafficking in Persons (2013), Trafficking in persons for begging Romania study. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/anti-trafcking/sites/antitrafficking/files/trafficking_in_persons_for_begging_-_romania_study_0.pdf [13.11.2019].

Panainte R. (2014). ‘The changes in the legislature’s conception reflected in the new Romanian Criminal Code’, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 149, pp. 691–695.

Rusu I. (2015). ‘Some common issues and the application of more favourable criminal law for crimes against the person according to the new Criminal Code’, Acta Universitatis Danubius. Juridica 3(11), pp. 41–49.

Sarkis I. (2018). ‘The Romanian Legal System for the Protection of Human Trafficking Victims’, Analele Universității Titu Maiorescu 17, pp. 184–199.

Serban D. (2015). Regulation of Human Trafficking Crime in Current Romanian Law. Conferinta Internationala de Drept, Studii Europene si Relatii Internationale, HeinOnline.

Sharapov K. (2019). ‘Public understanding of trafficking in human beings in Great Britain, Hungary, and Ukraine’, Anti-Trafficking Review 13, pp. 30–49.

Statistical Yearbook of Hungary, 2018, (2019). Available online: https://www.ksh.hu/apps/shop.kiadvany? p_kiadvany_id=1049562&p_lang=EN [13.11.2019].

Surtees R. (2008). ‘Traffickers and trafficking in Southern and Eastern Europe’, European Journal of Criminology 1(5), pp. 39–68.

Tomșa R., Hosszu A., Duminică G. (2019). Trafficking of human beings in Romania: 497 registered victims and 130 convicted traffickers? Available online: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336847955_Trafficking_of_human_beings_in_Romania_497_registered_victims_and_130_convicted_traffickers [7. 11.2019].

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime [UNODC] (2017), Monitoring Target 16.2 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals: Multiple systems estimation of the numbers of presumed victims of trafficking in persons, Romania. Available online: https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/glotip/MSE_Research_Brief_Romania.pdf [14.04.2020].

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime [UNODC] (2018), Global Report on Trafficking in persons 2018. New York: United Nations. Available online: https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/glotip/2018/GLOTiP_2018_BOOK_web_small.pdf [14.04.2020].

USA Department of State (2019), Trafficking in Persons Report June 2019. Available online: https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/2019-Trafficking-in-Persons-Report.pdf [14.04.2020].

Vidra Z., Katona N., Sebhelyi V. (2018). ‘State policies and institutional procedures and practices addressing prostitution and sex trafficking of children in Hungary’, Critical Social Policy 4(38), pp. 645–666.

Vincze Ádány T., Balogh-Békési N., Balogh Z., Hajas B. (2015). ‘Rights and freedoms’. In Z.A. Varga, A. Patyi, B. Schanda (eds.), The Basic Law of Hungary: A Commentary of the New Hungarian Constitution. Dublin: Clarus Press, pp. 79–122.

Copyright (c) 2020 INP PAN

Pobrania

Download data is not yet available.